MTA Database Fundamentals

This David Papkin page has info on Microsoft MTA Database Fundamentals



Create a Login

Creating Logins and Users in SQL Server

Database Normalization

What is Database Normalization in SQL?

Database normalization

Referential Integrity

SQL joining through referential integrity

Commonly used SQL Server Constraints: FOREIGN KEY, CHECK and DEFAULT

Referential Integrity in SQL Server


  1. On the Start menu click Run. In the Open box type cmd, and then click OK to open a Command Prompt window. (If you have not connected to this instance of the SQL Server Database Engine before, you may have to configure SQL Server to accept connections.)
  2. At the command prompt, type sqlcmd.
  3. Press ENTER.You now have a trusted connection to the default instance of SQL Server that is running on your computer.1> is the sqlcmd prompt that specifies the line number. Each time you press ENTER, the number increases by one.
  4. To end the sqlcmd session, type EXIT at the sqlcmd prompt.

sqlcmd Utility ( syntax & download instructions)

sqlcmd – Run Transact-SQL Script Files

Learners Supplemental materials

Q & A

What is the difference between DDL & DML?

DDL is Data Definition Language and is used to define the structures like schema, database, tables, constraints etc. Examples of DDL are create and alter statements.

DDL is Data Manipulation Language and is used to manipulate data. Examples of DML are insert, update and delete statements.

Following are the important differences between DDL and DML.

SerNum Key DDL DML
1 Stands for DDL stands for Data Definition Language. DML stands for Data Manipulation Language.
2 Usage DDL statements are used to create database, schema, constraints, users, tables etc. DML statement is used to insert, update or delete the records.
3 Classification DDL has no further classification. DML is further classified into procedural DML and non-procedural DML.

How to find out the name of your SQL Server?


select @@SERVICENAME ;

Additional resources 

Microsoft Learn SQL

w3schools SQL tutorial


End of David Papkin page  on MTA Database Fundamentals